Table of Contents
- Investigation of feet functions of large ruminants with a decoupled model of equivalent mechanism
Summary: This study shows that level and soft grounds are best for symmetric and asymmetric digits, respectively, as revealed by kinematic analysis using a decoupled equivalent mechanism of the foot of ruminants.
- Reprogramming towards totipotency is greatly facilitated by synergistic effects of small molecules
Summary: The optimized culture condition with small molecules is sufficient to allow highly efficient mouse cloning by removing epigenetic barriers to reprogramming.
- Non-centralized and functionally localized nervous system of ophiuroids: evidence from topical anesthetic experiments
Summary: Functional localization exists in the nervous system of ophiuroids although there is no evidence of a morphological counterpart to the central nervous system of other species.
- tBRD-1 and tBRD-2 regulate expression of genes necessary for spermatid differentiation
Summary: Testis transcriptome analyses indicate that a defined set of testis-expressed genes is regulated by the testis-specific bromodomain proteins tBRD-1 and tBRD-2 and members of the tMAC, Mediator, and tTFIID complexes.
- A novel immunodeficient NOD.SCID-rd1 mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa to investigate potential therapeutics and pathogenesis of retinal degeneration
Summary: NOD.SCID-rd1 is an immune compromised mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) to investigate cell-based therapeutics for retinal rescue during RP and to study immunological aspects of its pathogenesis and progression.
- Xenopus laevis Kif18A is a highly processive kinesin required for meiotic spindle integrity
Summary: The highly processive kinesin Kif18A, which is expressed during oocyte maturation in Xenopus laevis, is required for correct spindle formation in meiotic egg extracts and can functionally complement human Kif18A in tissue culture cells.
- Metabolic rate and hypoxia tolerance are affected by group interactions and sex in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster): new data and a literature survey
Summary: Technical advances allowing oxygen consumption measurement in individual fruit flies actually take them out of their normal highly social context, resulting in higher oxygen consumption rates than in natural groups.
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cpn60.2 (GroEL2) blocks macrophage apoptosis via interaction with mitochondrial mortalin
Summary: Once macrophage ingests Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the chaperone Cpn60.2 detaches from mycobacterial surface and traffics towards mitochondria. Once there, Cpn60.2 interacts with host mortalin leading to inhibition of macrophage's apoptosis.
- Tanshinone IIA suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis by inhibiting the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells and the proliferation and migration of macrophages induced by ox-LDL
Summary: Tanshinone IIA may become a new approach for the prevention of atherosclerosis progression through inhibiting the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells and the proliferation and migration of macrophages.
- In-air hearing of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)
Summary: The in-air audiogram of a male adult great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) was determined using psychophysics methods to further our knowledge of hearing sensitivity in aquatic birds in relation to human generated noise.
- Propulsive efficiency of frog swimming with different feet and swimming patterns
Summary: To explore propulsion in swimming frogs, this study analyzed mechanical efficiencies based on data describing aquatic and terrestrial feet and swimming patterns.
- Depletion of Tcf3 and Lef1 maintains mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal
Summary: Depletion of Lef1 and Tcf3 shows that ESCs could be shielded from differentiative cues to maintain the ESC ground state.
- Novel device for application of continuous mechanical tensile strain to mammalian cells
Summary: Continuous tensile strain from the device changed the cell morphology and increased the expression of inflammatory and osteogenic gene. These effects were similar to those in the PDL during orthodontic tooth movement.
- Time-varying auditory gain control in response to double-pulse stimuli in harbour porpoises is not mediated by a stapedial reflex
Summary: Echolocating toothed whales reduce their hearing for short echo delays and unlike bats, do not use a stapedial reflex, but rather forward masking and a central mechanism to evoke the effect.